Mandor (alphabet)
m [m]
mo b [b]
be [ [ai]
(bye, eye)
aee-ah g [g]
a [ah]
ah y [y]
(yes, yarn)
ye l [l]
leh i [i]
n [n]
ne t [t]
tah s [s]
sah c [ch]
d [d]
da x [sh]
sheh ] [oo/uu]
(soup, book)
oon w [w]
o [oh]
ohn e [e]
en v [v]
voh \ [oy]
r [r]
ra & [ee]
een p [p]
peh f [f/v]
q [ay/ey]
ay j [j]
jah u [a]
uhn ; [uy]
h [h]
hah k [c/k]
kah z [z]
zhar ' glottal
The pronouns
Pronouns are not divided by gender. Most pronouns do not have a separate possessive form.
ni I ner my
gar you gar yours
k[x hi, she k[x his, her
mi we k}n ours
g'an you (pl.) g'an yours (pl.)
val they val their
The word bik is sometimes translated as "it".
The nouns
The nouns in Mando’a have no gender. It if is necessary the gender can be determined by context.
In very rare cases, when it is nevertheless necessary to specify the gender, adjectives jag&x (male) and dal&x (female) may be used.
For example:
ni kopAn& evAr'la dal&x hAl'kab]r I want a new women's breastplate
ke'd&n;& ni jag&x k]tq Give me men's underwear
The plural
The plural is formed by adding the endings -q (after a consonant) or -sq (after a vowel).
For example:
beskar'adq droids, robots
ar]qtIsq outsiders, traitors
Possessive case
The formation of the possessive case in Mando'a depends mainly on the context. The easiest way is to use the preposition be or the possessive prefix be'.
The difference between the two is the same as between the phrases "Saber of Boba" and "Boba's saber," i.e., none.
For example:
kad be boba Saber of Boba
kad be'boba Boba’s saber
Sometimes possessive nouns are attached to the object.
For example:
boba'kad Saber of Boba
A rare and archaic way is to use possessive words as suffixes 'be or 'b.
For example:
boba'be kad Saber of Boba
jetI'b kad Saber of Jedi
The negative forms
The negative forms can be used with any parts of speech. The negation can also refer to the whole phrase.
The most common is formation from the dictionary forms of a word by adding special prefixes to it.
But there can be some cases in which the negative particle is merged with the base of the word and is already used independently in this form.
It is especially illustrative of archaic forms.
For example:
prefix base ending word translation
no- vor -er novorer block, hinder, resist
  vor -er vorer accept, allow
The negative particles ne' and nu'
The negative form is formed by using the prefixes nq' or n]' (before consonants) and n' (before vowels).
The prefixes are equivalent in use, but the variant nq' is a little more common.
For example:
prefix base ending word translation
nq'- kAn   nq'kAn non-combatant, civilian (noun)
n]'- am -&x n]'am&x normal, natural, usual (adjective)
n'- epa -r n'epar not to eat (verb)
The particle of the opposite meaning noy'
The negative particle n\' is used to indicate the opposite action.
This verb prefix has the same meaning of "undo", like prefixes "un-" or "dis-"
(example: gotal']r - create, make; n\'gotal']r - unmake, dismantle) in English.
The particle n\' is commonly applied to verbs, but other parts of speech can also be formed from verbs.

Words with prefixes of opposite meaning can serve as synonyms for words formed in a different way.
For example:
a word with noy’ synonym translation
n\'teN hAranov'la secret
n\'gotal']r nAstar destroy
The verb
In Mando’a the verbs have following endings:
- if an underlying word ends with a vowel, the verb formed from the word ends with -r;
- if an underlying word ends with a consonant, a vowel and -r is added to the end of the verb.
base ending word translation
bqten -or bqtenor sigh
cak -]r cak]r steal, rob
xar -&r xar&r love
l&nI -r l&n&r need
The most common is the ending -&r
If a radical base ends in rune -i, then in a verb ending it is transformed into rune -&

All verbs are stressed only on their verb endings.
Even if in other parts of speech formed from the same base the stress is placed differently,
the verbs will still be stressed on their verb endings.
For example: bqten [BEY-tehn]] (noun) and bqtenor [bey-tehn-OHR] (verb)
The imperative mode
In Mando’a the moods are divided into two types:
The infinitive, which can be correlated with the indicative mood. It is represented by the dictionary form of the word.
And the command mood, by which an order or a command are formed. The imperative mood itself.

The command form of a verb is formed by putting it in the second person
and adding to it the prefix ke'before a consonant and k' before a vowel.
infinitive translation command translation
parqr to wait ke'parq! Wait!
at&n%r to endure, to put up with, to hold on k'at&n%! Hold on!
The verb conjugation
The verb has only two forms of conjugation in Mando'a.
The indefinite form is expressed by the infinitive and corresponds to the dictionary form of the word.
The finite form is formed by shortening the -r sound in the verb ending.
It also does not change in tenses, persons, genders, or numbers.
The exception is a small group of archaic verbs.
the infinitive translation finite verb form translation
akAn&r fight ni akAn& I fight
olaror come, arrive k[x olaro o'r r]'t}r He arrived yesterday
n]h\&r slumber, sleep deeply val n]h\& They are sleeping deeply
The verb forms k;&r (to be)
After the reform of the language by Or'ka Rusk ( or'ka rask), a taung who lived at the time of Mandalor the Ultimate,
there were virtually no exceptions to the verb conjugation in Mando'a.
When other races began to join the Mandalorians and Mando'a began to be spoken not only by the taungs,
it was too difficult for many of new members to master all the subtleties of the ancient language.
A new reform was required, and a number of simplifications and unifications were adopted in the new Mando'a.
But some exceptions proved to be too resilient, and they could not be replaced by reform.
The most important exception remained the verb k;&r, to be.
ni k; I am mi k; We are
gar k; You are g'an k; You (plural) are
k[x k;& He/she is val k;& They are
bik k;& It is    

The verb k;&r is most often elided in speech and is used only as a qualifying word.
The sentence meaning is usually clear from the context or, if necessary, can be conveyed through the word order.
The basic verb tenses
The present tense of a verb is the most common, the most universal, and the most dominant tense in the language.
If the time of the event can be specified in other words of the sentence or understood from the context,
then the present tense will be used as a description of an action.
The present tense is expressed by the finite verb form and has no additional prefixes.

The past tense is formed by adding to the finite verb form the prefix r]' for bases beginning with a consonant,
and the prefix r' for bases beginning with a vowel.

The future tense is formed by adding the prefix ven' to the finite verb form.
The present tense translation The past tense translation The future tense translation
ni davA k]'nar I do my duty (contractually) ni r]'davA k]'nar I did my duty (contractually) ni ven'davA k]'nar I will do my duty (contractually)
ban'd]xq am& gar Troubles change you ban'd]xq r'am& gar Troubles changed you ban'd]xq ven'am& gar Troubles will change you
It is important to know that there is no Continuous tense, Perfect tense, Future in the past tenses etc. in Mando’a.
There are only three tense forms – present, past, future which can be understood as Continuous, Perfect or Future-in-the-Past tenses etc. with the help of context.

The passive voice
Mando'a is an active language. A mandalorian is more likely to construct a sentence using direct word order, from subject to object.
But there are cases when you can't avoid the passive voice. Such phrases are used much less frequently. They can be used only when it is necessary to emphasize the passive nature of the action in a special way or if the subject is clear from the context, and is omitted in the sentence.

The passive voice is formed from the object to the subject and the subject is preceded by the particle de.
In modern Mando'a the particle de is a preposition, but in archaic texts this particle acts as a prefix and is included as part of the word.

The impact on the object itself can be expressed in two equivalent and equally usable ways.

Method 1.
The verb suffix 'bar is added to a significant verb in the finite form.
To form the finite form of a verb in the passive voice, -r is discarded from the verb suffix.
This method of forming the passive voice can only be applied to verbs.

Method 2.
The prefix k;'
or the auxiliary verb k;&r (to be), which is put in the same person and number as the object are used to form the passive voice.

active voice: subject => action => object passive voice: object <= action <= subject
ax'adq r]'tAp't[l& or&'mq'sen Someone took over the cruiser or&'mq'sen r]'tAp't[l&ba (d'ax'adq) The cruiser was took over
(by someone)
Method 1
k[x r]'s]s]l] ni He heard me ni k; r]'s]s]l]r de k[x I was heard by him
Method 2, 1st person
or&ya heT& The city burns or&ya k;& heT&r (d'ax'adq) The city is being burned (by someone)
Method 2, 3rd person
Modal prefix verbs
The use of modal carries a certain ritualistic and archaic connotation in modern Mando'a.
Modal prefix verbs emphasize the special importance of the phrase in which they are present.

Stylistically, modal prefix verbs are most commonly used in formal speech, but sometimes they can be heard in everyday language as well.
However, in everyday language the same thoughts are often expressed in words with less pathos, in simpler words.

In the basic version, when the modal verb is joined to the notional one, the modal verb acts as a prefix.
But if the modal verb is in the negative or interrogative form, and the appropriate prefixes are attached to, it becomes an independent word and is used separately from the notional verb, being placed immediately before it.

basic form translation negative
translation interroga-
tive form
ent' ente' must / have to n'ente musn’t/don’t have to t&on'ente whether I should, must
veg&x' veg&xe' need to do something in the future (will have to) nq'veg&x no need to do anything in the future (shouldn’t) t&on'veg&x whether something needs to be done in the future
ret' retu' an opportunity to do something in the past (could) nq'ret inability to do anything in the past (couldn’t) t&on'ret was it possible to do something in the past
g&x' g&xe' intend to do something in the future (shall) nq'g&x intention not to do something in the future (shouldn’t) t&on'g&x do you intend to do anything in the future
d}r' d}' expresses permission (may) n]'d}r expresses prohibition, not allowed t&on'd}r is there anything that allowed to do

basic form translation negative form translation interrogative form translation
gar ent'ara'novo k[x You have to protect him gar n'ente ara'novo k[x You don't have to protect him t&on'ente gar ara'novo k[x? Do you have to protect him?
gar veg&x'ara'novo k[x You will have to protect him gar nq'veg&x ara'novo k[x You won't need to protect him t&on'veg&x gar ara'novo k[x? Will you need to protect him?
gar ret'ara'novo k[x You could have protected him gar nq'ret ara'novo k[x You couldn't protect him t&on'ret gar ara'novo k[x? Could you protect him?
gar g&x'ara'novo k[x You shall protect him gar nq'g&x ara'novo k[x ТYou shall not protect him t&on'g&x gar ara'novo k[x? Shall you protect him?
gar d}r'ara'novo k[x You may protect him gar n]'d}r ara'novo k[x You may not protect him t&on'd}r gar ara'novo k[x? May you protect him?
The adjectives
Adjectives have two common endings -la or -&x in Mando'a.

However, the majority of adjectives do not have any endings.
Morphologically, they do not differ from nouns,
and the fact that they are adjectives can only be understood from their role in a sentence.

The sign beyten ' is not usually placed before the ending -&x and before the ending -la in archaic words.
translation ending
translation no
novor'la impregnable, protected vqrd'&x aggressive
(not necessarily negative!)
nq'tra black
x]k'la fragmented, broken,
crushed, shattered
ret'&x possible pakod easy, simple
r}sala trusting, trustful,
gullible, credulous
har&x tired ser&m accurate, correct
or&yala urban kab]r&x favoring, protective, patronizing veman real, genuine
The comparative form of an adjective
The comparative form of an adjective is formed by adding the ending -x&a to the full adjective form.

If an adjective has -la or -&x endings and it is separated from the base by beyten ',
then in writing the beyten is shifted to separate the second ending -x&a from the full adjective form.

There are quite a few exceptions remaining in this way of transforming adjectives.
For example, in the words or&'x&a or d]x&x&a we can see that the archaic ways of forming the comparative form were more various.

adjective ending the comparative form translation
jahAla -'x&a jahAla'x&a healthy => healthier
y[m'la -'x&a y[mla'x&a comfortable => more comfortable
&v%n'&x -'x&a &v%n&x'x&a fast => faster
or&x -'x&a or&'x&a big => bigger
d]x -'x&a d]x&x&a bad => worse
The superlative form of adjectives
The superlative form of an adjective is formed by the same principle as the comparative form.
The ending -nq is added to the full adjective form.

If an adjective has -la or -&x endings and it is separated from the base by beyten ',
then in writing the bateen is shifted to separate the second ending -nq from the full adjective form.

There are also archaic exceptions in the way superlative adjectives are constructed.

adjective ending the superlative form translation
jahAla -'nq jahAla'nq healthy => the healthiest
y[m'la -'nq y[mla'nq comfortable => the most comfortable
&v%n'&x -'nq &v%n&x'nq fast => the fastest
or&x -'nq or&xnq big => the biggest
d]x -'nq d]xnq bad => the worst
The conjunctions
conjunction translation example translation
ad] who ni kar'm& b]rx'a ad] ven'gA't[l& gar I know a guy who can help you
mqg, mqgin which, what, that, who ni kar't[l& mqg gar kopAn& nar&r ti k[x I know what he wants to do with them
bor] how k[x nq's]var& bor] val r]'\ax& He didn't understand how they had survived
jor because k[x n]ho jork] k[st har&x He sleeps because he's tired
mq if ni g&xe'k&r'am] mq gar ve'nar& bik I'll kill you if you do this
t} when ke'trax&'a t} ni na]m%t&! Shoot when I give the signal!
v[ where k[x y[mpa ogir v[ br%kar& mq'sen He went back to where he had hidden his spaceship
par for k[x ba'slana par tqgAnal& vodq He retreated for the rescue of his brothers
The sentence
The word order is direct and fixed in the basic sentence form:
subject => predicate => amplification => adverbial

The complete sentences are almost always used in Mando’a.
In rare exceptions the subject may be omitted, when the acting subject is unknown.

subject predicate amplification adverbial translation
k[x parq ni o'r ven't}r He's expecting me tomorrow
(ax'adq) r]'cak] k[x or k]rs He was robbed in the woods
The subject
The subject or object is the main part of the sentence.
Most frequently, the subject in Mando'a is a noun, a pronoun, or a numeral.
In rare cases, the subject may be expressed by a word combination or even by an infinitive of a verb.

part of speech subject sentence translation
pronoun k[x k[x ts&kado besbq par sol'akAn He prepares the equipment for the battle
noun tra'gAl tra'gAl y[mpa at or&'sen A combat fighter returned to the cruiser
ara'novor ara'novor al%t - al&'nar par mando'ad To protect the clan (family) is a Mandalorian duty
The simple predicate
ПThe simple predicate is expressed by a verb and describes the action that the subject performs on the object.

The negation is placed directly to the verb.

ni har& I am tired
ni nq'har& I am not tired
The compound predicates
A compound predicate consists of two verbs:
The main verb, which is in the finite form, and the qualifying verb, which is in the infinitive.

The negation can be put either to the main verb or to the qualifying verb.

Between the main verb and the qualifying verb there may be an adjective in comparative form,
indicating a special characteristic of the qualifying verb.

ni kopAn& epar I want to eat
ni nq'kopAn& epar I don’t want to eat
ni kopAn& n'epar al n]hor I don't want to eat, but to sleep
ni kopAn& n]hor or&'x&a me epar I want to sleep more than to eat
The interrogative sentence
A statement can be turned into a question with the help of the question prefix t&on'.

In this case the word to which the question refers, together with the prefix t&on', is moved to the beginning of the sentence.

type of sentence interrogative word sentence translation
  mi h&b&ra mando'a &v%n'&x We learn Mando'a quickly
subject question t&on'mi t&on'mi h&b&ra mando'a &v%n'&x? Do we learn Mando'a quickly?
predicate question t&on'h&b&ra t&on'h&b&ra mi mando'a &v%n'&x? Do we learn Mando'a quickly?
amplification question t&on'mando'a t&on'mando'a mi h&b&ra &v%n'&x? Do we learn Mando'a quickly?
adverbial question t&on'&v%n'&x t&on'&v%n'&x mi h&b&ra mando'a? Do we learn Mando'a quickly?
The underlined words will be in the first place in Mando’a. And they will have a logical emphasis.
Interrogative words
In addition to the universal interrogative prefix t&on' there is a number of interrogative words that specify the question in Mando’a.

translation example translation
t&on'ad who? t&on'adq r]'nAsta keldab? Who destroyed the citadel?
t&on'mqg what? t&on'mqg gar s]r&? What do you see?
t&on't}r when? t&on't}r gar y[mpa at y[m'dab'iku? When do you go back to camp?
t&on'v[i where? t&on'v[i gar d&g] trax&'kAn? Where did you leave your flamethrower?
t&on'jor why? t&on'jor ni nq'kar't[l& bik? Why don’t I know it?
t&on'solet how many? how much? t&on'solet m]'nar&x ni s]'parq? How much longer do I have to wait?
t&on'bor how? t&on'bor mi ven'nar& bik? How can we do it?
t&on'mq what if? t&on'mq k[x n'olaro? What if he doesn't show up?
t&on'beh what about? t&on'beh h[l&r setarq? What about some food?
t&on'tan what kind? t&on'tan ibik t&hAr? What kind of brandy is this?
t&on'par what for? t&on'par gar r]'cAb& ba'b;ir? What for did you scare Grandma?